Citation and Bibliographic Formats for Theological Papers

This guide is a summary of the main citation formats used in theological studies for print and electronic sources as outlined in the Chicago Manual of Style as adapted in Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, 7th ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007.

N refers to footnote or endnote usage. B refers to the format for bibliographic citation.

I Print Sources

Book (Single Author)

(N) Karl Barth, How I Changed My Mind (Richmond: John Knox Press, 1966), 27-33.

(B) Barth, Karl. How I Changed My Mind. Richmond: John Knox Press, 1966.

Book (Editor as Author)
(N) George R. Sumner and Ephraim Radner, eds., The Rule of Faith: Scripture, Canon, and Creed in a Critical Age (Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse, 1998).

(B) Sumner, George R. and Ephraim Radner, eds. The Rule of Faith: Scripture, Canon, and Creed in a Critical Age. Harrisburg, PA: Morehouse, 1998.

Single Author Contribution to an Edited Collection

(N) Robert Merrill Black, "Stablished in the Faith: The Church of England in Upper Canada, 1780-1867," in By Grace Co-Workers: Building the Anglican Diocese of Toronto, 1780-1989, ed. Alan L. Hayes (Toronto: Anglican Book Service, 1989), 23.

(B) Black, Robert Merrill. "Stablished in the Faith: The Church of England in Upper Canada, 1780-1867." In By Grace Co-Workers: Building the Anglican Diocese of Toronto, 1780-1989, ed. Alan L. Hayes, 21-41. Toronto: Anglican Book Service, 1989.


Secondary Source of Quotation

(N) Denis Nineham, Christianity, Medieval and Modern (London: SCM Press, 1993) quoted in Rowan Williams, Why Study the Past? The Quest for the Historical Church (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2005), 89.

(B) Nineham, Denis. Christianity, Medieval and Modern. London: SCM Press, 1993. Quoted in Rowan Williams, Why Study the Past? The Quest for the Historical Church. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2005.


Article in a Theological Dictionary or Encyclopedia

(N) L.G. McLung, "Evangelism," in The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements, ed. Stanley M. Burgess and Eduard M. Van Der Maas (Grand Rapids, MI.: Zondervan, 2002), 617-620.

(B) McLung, L.G. "Evangelism." In The New International Dictionary of Pentecostal and Charismatic Movements, ed. Stanley M. Burgess and Eduard M. Van Der Maas, 617-620. Grand Rapids, MI.: Zondervan, 2002.


Journal Article (volume and date)

(N) Crawford Gribben, "Defining the Puritans? The Baptism Debate in Cromwellian Ireland, 1654-56," Church History 73 (2004):63-89.

(B) Gribben, Crawford. "Defining the Puritans? The Baptism Debate in Cromwellian Ireland, 1654-56." Church History 73 (2004):63-89.


Journal Article (volume and issue)

(N) Colin Grant, "The Irony of Rorty's Lack of Theological Irony," Toronto Journal of Theology 22, no.1 (2006): 7-22.

(B) Grant, Colin. "The Irony of Rorty's Lack of Theological Irony." Toronto Journal of Theology 22, no.1 (2006): 7-22.

Magazine Article

(N) David Winfrey, "Biblical Therapy," The Christian Century 124, no. 2 (January 23, 2007): 24-27.

(B) Winfrey, David. "Biblical Therapy." The Christian Century 124, no. 2 (January 23, 2007): 24-27.


Book Review in a Journal

(N) Esther D. Reed, review of Theology in a Global Context: The Last Two Hundred Years, by Hans Schwartz, Reviews in Religion and Theology 14, no.1 (2007): 50-53.

(B) Reed, Esther D. Review of Theology in a Global Context: The Last Two Hundred Years, by Hans Schwartz. Reviews in Religion and Theology 14, no.1 (2007): 50-53.


Thesis/Dissertation

(N) Brian D.R. Cooper, "Human Reason or Reasonable Humanity? Balthasar Hubmaier, Pilgram Marpeck, and Menno Simmons, and the Catholic Natural Law Tradition," (Th.D. thesis, Wycliffe College, 2006).

(B) Cooper, Brian D. R. "Human Reason or Reasonable Humanity? Balthasar Hubmaier, Pilgram Marpeck, and Menno Simmons, and the Catholic Natural Law Tradition." Th.D. thesis, Wycliffe College, 2006.

II Electronic Sources

Electronic Books

(N) George Duncumb, Abraham's Faith Stated and Applied a Sermon Preached February 16, 1695/6 (London: Printed for Tim. Goodwin, 1697, Early English Books Online) http://eebo.chadwyck.com (accessed Feb. 22, 2007).

(B) Duncumb, George. Abraham's Faith Stated and Applied a Sermon Preached February 16, 1695/6. London: Printed for Tim. Goodwin, 1697. Early English Books Online. http://eebo.chadwyck.com (accessed Feb. 22, 2007).

Web Sites

(N) Miroslav Volf, "Miroslav Wolf on Trends in American Religion & the Challenge of Exclusion and Embrace in Christian Practice," Resources for American Christianity. February 21 2002, http://www.resourcingChristianity.org/WhatsBeenLearned.aspx?ID=56&t=3&I=95 (accessed April 3, 2007).

(B) Volf, Miroslav. "Miroslav Wolf on Trends in American Religion & the Challenge of Exclusion and Embrace in Christian Practice." Resources for American Christianity. February 21 2002. http://www.resourcingChristianity.org/WhatsBeenLearned.aspx?ID=56&t=3&I=95 (accessed April 3, 2007).

Electronic Journals

(N) Stephen S. Chester, "Paul and the Introspective Conscience of Martin Luther: The Impact of Luther's Anfechtungen on his Interpretation of Paul," Biblical Interpretation: A Journal of Contemporary Approaches 14, no.5 (2006): 510, http://www.springerlink.com/content (accessed March 1, 2007).

(B) Chester, Stephen S. "Paul and the Introspective Conscience of Martin Luther: The Impact of Luther's Anfechtungen on his Interpretation of Paul." Biblical Interpretation: A Journal of Contemporary Approaches 14, no.5 (2006): 508-536. http://www.springerlink.com/content (accessed March 1, 2007).

Online Newspapers & News Services

(N) Diane Bisson, "Say to the darkness, we beg to differ," Catholic New Times, Nov. 26, 2006, http://find.galegroup.com (Catholic New Times) (accessed March 1, 2007).

(B) Bisson, Diane."Say to the darkness, we beg to differ." Catholic New Times, Nov. 26, 2006. http://find.galegroup.com. (Catholic New Times) (accessed March 1, 2007).

Online Reference Works

(N) W. Ullman and G. Schwaiger, "Papacy," New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd ed. (Detroit: Gale, 2003, Gale Virtual Reference Library), http://find.galegroup.com/gvrl (accessed April 6, 2005).

(B)Ullman, W., and G. Schwaiger. "Papacy." New Catholic Encyclopedia, 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale, 2003, Gale Virtual Reference Library. http://find.galegroup.com/gvrl (accessed April 6, 2005).


The following works have been used in the preparation of this guide:

Turabian, K., Wayne C. Booth & Gregory C. Colomb. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 2007. [LB2369 .T8].

Yaghjian, Lucretia B. Writing Theology Well: A Rhetoric for Theological and Biblical Writers. London and New York: Continuum, 2006. [BR44. Y34].

Revised, Nov. 2012.